jump directly to content.
Principles. Crops. Pests. Control methods Library. Links.
key visual: online information service for Non-chemical Pest Management in the Tropics

General Information

Common name: Grasshopper
Orthoptera:Acrididae (short-horned grasshoppers)


Grasshoppers prefer cereals and grasses but they will feed on almost all agricultural crops




On cereal crops, feeding damage is generally concentrated near field margins as the hatchlings are not very mobile. Their feeding damage includes leaf notching and stripping, but as they mature they can consume an entire plant. They can fly and move around easily in search of a wide variety of food sources (Hein; Campbell, 2004).


Eggs are white, yellow green, tan, or various shades of brown in color and are elongated, curved, and pod-liked. They are laid beneath the soil surface (also in non-crop areas including ditches, fence rows, and weedy areas) in compact clusters of 35-100 eggs that is covered by a frothy secretion. The froth bubbles, which protect the eggs from drying, are either white or brown, depending on the species, . The eggs will hatch in about 1-3 months, depending on the species and environmental conditions (Reissig; et. al., 1986: pp. 112-113).

The newly hatched nymph is white in color. After several hours of exposure to sunlight, it assumes its distinctive color and the markings of becoming an adult. Most nymphs immediately look for feeding sites and continue to feed on the same plants until they become adults. The nymphs have wing pads but they cannot fly. This is the reason why most of the damaged plants are concentrated and are found at the edges of the field. They will undergo 4-9 nymphal stages and become adults in about 2-7 months depending on the species and environmental conditions (Reissig; et. al., 1986: pp. 112-113).

nDescription of adult grasshopper species that are common agricultural pests

  1. Clear-winged grasshopper (Camnula pellucida) is yellowish to brownish in color with clear wings that are streaked with round brown spots. It has two stripes that start at the thorax and converge at the tip of the wings. It is about 2.1-3.2 cm long (Phillip, 2004).
  2. Differential grasshopper (Melanoplus differentialis) is brown to olive-green or yellow in color. The hind legs are marked with V-shaped-like black markings. It is about 2.5-3.2 cm long (Texas A&M University, 1999).
  3. Elegant grasshopper (Zonocerus elegans) measures from 3-3.7 mm long and has a striking color pattern. Its body is boldly patterned in black, yellow, and orange. It has an olive-green saddle and a yellowish-green with red-blended elytra. When touched, it emits drops of a yellowish and foul odor fluid (Matthews, 1994: p. 393).
  4. n
  5. Hieroglyphus banian is dull-green or yellow- brown in color, without stripes. Its brown antennae have yellow rings. The enlarged pair of legs are green. It is about 2.7- 3.2 cm. long (Reissig; et. al., 1986: p. 113).
  6. Migratory grasshopper (M. sanguinipes) is grayish to reddish-brown with a yellow abdomen. Its front wings have no stripes but have small and square black patches (Phillip, 2004).
  7. Oxya japonica japonica is bright-green with a yellow-green stripe running from the head along the back. A large black-stripe runs along its side of the body. It is about 2.7- 3.2 cm. long (Reissig; et. al., 1986: p. 113).
  8. Packard grasshopper (M. packardii) is gray to dark-yellow and has 2 light-colored stripes that extend from just behind the eyes to the posterior margin of the thorax. The forewings are uniformly gray and lack distinctive stripes. The last 2 segments of the hind legs are blue- green. It is approximately 2.7- 3.2 cm. long (Calpas; Johnson, 2003).
  9. Redlegged grasshopper (M. femurrubrum) has a gray-green to yellow-brown body and a yellow abdomen. Its last segment of the hind leg is red, hence the name (Phillip, 2004).
  10. Two-striped grasshopper (M. bivittatus) has two pale-stripes extending back from the eyes to the tip of the wings. It is about 4 cm long (Phillip, 2004).
  11. Zonocerus variegatus is covered with black, yellow and orange patterns. It is about 3.5 cm long (Matthews, 1994: p. 393).
 to the top        PAN Germany, OISAT; Email oisat@pan-germany.org